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terça-feira, 21 de fevereiro de 2012

The Qualities of a Sadhu

A Lecture by His Divine Grace

Sri Srila Bhakti Ballabh Tirtha Maharaja

Due to the desire of the devotees in the West and in India, and as per the order of my siksa guru, Param Pujyapada Puri Gosvami Maharaja, I have come out of India and traveled to many parts of the world. By the grace of my siksa guru, I am finding devotees everywhere. God has sent us to these places to get the company of the devotees there. By having the company of the devotees, we can get devotion to Supreme Lord Sri Krsna. "Bhaktistu bhagavada bhakta sangena parijayate." By associating with the pure devotee, you can get devotion to the Supreme Lord. There is no other way. By associating with the karmi, jnani or yogi, you cannot get devotion. A devotee may be in the ascetic or household order, but either way, if you keep company with the devotee, you can get devotion. Our most revered Guru Maharaja used to invite all the devotees, both ascetics and householders, to large spiritual conferences. So, we have also developed this aptitude for sadhu-sanga by observing him. We should serve and keep the company of devotees. Then we can achieve the objective-love for Krsna. How can we recognize the suddha bhakta, the pure devotee? The signs, symptoms and attributes of the suddha bhakta have been elucidated in Caitanya Caritamrta. In this literature, Kaviraja Gosvami has narrated the life and precepts of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. In Madhya-lila, he has written, "It is very difficult to narrate all the qualities of a Vaisnava. So, I am giving only a general overview, a hint of this." He then mentions twenty-six special qualities of a suddha bhakta or sadhu:

krpalu, akrta-droha, satya-sara, sama
nidosa, vadanya, mrdu, suci, akincana
sarvopakaraka, santa, krsnaika-sarana
akama, aniha, sthira, vijita-sad-guna
mita-bhuk, apramatta, manada, amani
gambhira, karuna, maitra, kavi, daksa, mauni
(Madhya-lila, 22.78-80)
These are the twenty-six principle qualities. Can you understand this? Perhaps you might think that Svamiji has gone crazy. "What is this he is saying?" We cannot understand this. Even Bengalis will not be able to understand. If I speak to Bengalis in their native tongue, they will also be unable to understand this because this is something beyond this world. "What is this Svamiji speaking?" they will think. What to speak of English speaking persons, a Bengali will not be able to understand this. When I first heard such terminology, I also did not understand. When our Guru Maharaja came to our village, my younger brother informed me that a hari-sabha, a huge Vaisnava meeting, was taking place. All the distinguished persons of the town were present. When I arrived, the site was fully packed with people-mostly lawyers. My uncle, who was also a lawyer, was there. My friend, who was the son of a government lawyer, also came with me. Our Guru Maharaja was addressing the gathering and we listened. I could not understand anything. I just looked at him. We had never heard such words at our homes or our schools and colleges. "What is this he is saying?" we thought. "This 'antaranga-sakti', 'bahiranga-sakti', 'tatastha-sakti', internal potency, external potency, marginal potency--what is all this?" I did not understand anything at first. Now, I have been at the Math for some time, so I have become acquainted with these words. At first, when I heard Guru Maharaja, I simply looked at him, without understanding. The only thing I understood was that Guru Maharaja was a great teacher, a great personality and that he was a krsna-bhakta. He advised us to perform worship of Krsna. I thought, "I want to worship Krsna, so I should go there to the Math to get krsna-bhakti." That much I had understood, and nothing else. How can we come to understand?
"Krpalu": The sadhu should be compassionate. One symptom of the sadhu is that he tries to remove the difficulties, the miseries, of the conditioned souls of this world. That is the nature of the sadhu. He is always compassionate and kind to all jivas.
"Akrta-droha": If anybody does any harm to him, the sadhu does not retaliate. He tolerates it. By this behavior, we can understand whether or not he is a sadhu. "I will become furious if anybody does any injury to me! I shall retaliate and teach him a lesson!" If a person thinks like this, then he is not a sadhu. In a sadhu, the tendency of retaliation toward hostility is absent.
"Satya-sara": Truthfulness (satya) is the sole object of his life (sara). He cannot speak lies.
"Sama": Sadhus are equal and impartial to all.
"Nidosa": Sadhus are faultless. You cannot find any fault in them.
"Vadanya": They are bountiful and munificent. Their hearts are magnanimous.
"Mrdu": They are of mild temperament. Sadhus never become harsh. They are very mild. "If anyone says something against me, I will become furious and speak harsh words." Sadhus cannot speak like this.
"Suci": Sadhus are pure.
"Akincana": They have no desires of this world.
"Sarvopakaraka": They do good to all the living beings of the world.
"Santa": As they have no desires, their minds are always restful-calm and quiet. When we have desires that we cannot fulfill, we become disturbed. But the sadhus have no desires, so they are calm and quiet. If anybody comes in contact with them, that person will also become calm and quiet. Why? Because of "krsnaika-sarana".
"Krsnaika-sarana": This is the original quality of the sadhu. God is the embodiment of all qualities--infinite, transcendental qualities. When you worship the Supreme Lord with devotion, these qualities will descend to you. You can get these qualities. So, this original quality of the sadhu means that he has taken absolute shelter of Supreme Lord Sri Krsna--absolute shelter.
The discussion between Kapiladeva and Devahuti in the Third Canto of Srimad Bhagavatam illustrates this. Mother Devahuti was asking questions and Kapila Bhagavan was answering her. Mother Devahuti, the consort of Kardama Rsi, prayed to her husband, "Please give me a son! Without a son, my life is futile." Then Kardama Rsi told her, "If you want a son, then I shall leave and go to the forest. Choose which one you want-me or a son." Devahuti became puzzled and remained silent. But after some time, she again appealed to her husband, "Without a son, I cannot be happy. Please give me a son." Repeatedly, Devahuti prayed to her husband for a son. Finally, Kardama Rsi instructed her, "We must perform penance, as per my direction. Then, by the grace of the Lord, you will get a son." Thus, he and his wife both embarked on the performance of immense penance together.
Observing the strong desire and penance of Kardama Rsi and Mother Devahuti, God Himself made up His mind to appear there as their Son. He appeared first in the heart of Kardama Rsi. Then, Kardama Rsi imparted knowledge of that Divinity to his wife by diksa initiation, and that same Divinity entered into her heart. Eventually, at the auspicious time, the Supreme Lord entered into Mother Devahuti's womb. After that, all the demigods came to know of the imminent appearance of Bhagavan and came to offer prayers to her womb. Afterward, Brahma came to Mother Devahuti and told her, "Mother, God is appearing as your Son. Do not think Him to be a human being." After alerting her, Brahma and the other demigods left.
On the auspicious day, Bhagavan Kapila appeared. Just after His appearance, He assumed the padma-asana, the yogic lotus sitting posture, on the bank of Bindu Sarovar. Upon seeing this, Mother Devahuti was astonished. "No child can sit like this as soon as he is born! What is this? Oh! Brahma told me that I should not think my Son to be a human being. God has appeared!" Then she made obeisances to Kapila Bhagavan, saying, "For so long I have been entangled in worldly desires! Therefore, I prayed so many times to my husband to grant me a son. Now that You have appeared, I can understand this." If someone has lived in darkness throughout his entire life, will he be able to understand that he is in darkness? When a glimpse of light comes, he realizes, "Oh! I was in darkness for such a long time!" Like this, Devahuti said, "For so long I was bereft of knowledge, but when you appeared, I realized that I had been in ignorance, enveloped by nescience. This was the reason why I prayed for a son. Please tell me how I can pass over the ocean of births and deaths and the miseries of this world."
Kapila Bhagavan smiled. Why? He thought, "Why is Mother Devahuti speaking to Me in this way? 'I was in ignorance, I desired a son, etc.' I do not appear in the impure heart! What is she saying?"

sattvam visuddham vasudeva-sabditam
yad iyate tatra puman apavrtah
sattve ca tasmin bhagavan vasudevo
hy adhoksajo me namasa vidhiyate
(Srimad Bhagavatam, 4.3.23)
These are the words of Mahadeva (Lord Siva) in the Fourth Canto of Srimad Bhagavatam. Vasudeva appears in the sanctified heart. Vasudeva means sanctified heart. "Jahan kama, tahan nahi rama" (Tulasi dasa Gosvami). "Where there is lust, there is no Rama." When we desire things for the satisfaction of our own gross and subtle senses, we come into contact with the inferior things of this world. God cannot appear there. Where there is the desire for enjoyment, there is no Rama, no God, no devotee and no realm of God-nothing is there. Kapila thought, "Why is she saying this? I appear in the sanctified heart! They have no desires of this world! They wanted Me, so I have appeared."
But Mother Devahuti said, "I was in darkness for such a long time." This is the special quality of the suddha bhakta. The suddha bhakta is the highest, but he has no pride or vanity. Because suddha bhaktas have knowledge of the Supreme Lord, because they have the taste of the highest truth, they think that they are nothing. When you see an inferior thing, you think, "I am higher than that. I am superior to it." But when you see a superior person, your head automatically bows down to him. So, it is very difficult to understand a suddha bhakta. The yogi and the jnani have pride. Actually, the suddha bhakta is the object of worship of the yogi and the jnani, but he has no vanity. So, the suddha bhakta cries that he has been in this world for so long, full of material desires.
So that we will not commit any offense toward the suddha bhakta, Kapila Bhagavan warned, "Mother! You do not have any such material desires! Your heart is sanctified! But, I shall reply to whatever you might ask me on behalf of the enslaved jivas of this world, for their eternal benefit!"
Then Kapila Bhagavan began His instructions to Mother Devahuti. You are to hear this repeatedly. We have already heard this many times, but it is our nature to forget. We hear now and, when we go outside, we forget. The repetition of hearing and chanting is necessary for this purpose. For my own self, it is also necessary-I also forget:

cetah khalv asya bandhaya
muktaye catmano matam
gunesu saktam bandhaya
ratam va pumsi muktaye
(Srimad Bhagavatam, 3.25.15)
The mind is the cause of bondage. But this same mind is also the cause of emancipation. How can this be? If one's mind is attached to tri-guna, the primal qualities of the external potency, then that person is in bondage. If his mind is attached to pumsi, to Supreme Lord Sri Krsna, Who is the Transcendental Supreme Reality, then he is emancipated. It has nothing to do with the body. This body has no work relevant to emancipation. The body is neither the cause of bondage nor emancipation. The mind is the cause of both. If one engages his mind in thinking about these worldly, temporary things, then he is in bondage. If one meditates on the Supreme Lord, his mind always being concentrated on Him, then he has salvation. So, mind is the cause of bondage and also of mukti--deliverance from the clutches of maya.
Mother Devahuti put questions to Kapila Bhagavan for the benefit of the enslaved jivas of this world. She asked, "What is tri-guna? We have little knowledge. Clearly explain this to me." It is something abstract. We cannot understand abstract things. She asked, "Explain this in a concrete way," so that we may understand. We are dunderheads. We are fools.
She continued, "Also, if we can achieve emancipation by having our minds attached to Supreme Lord Sri Krsna, how can we cultivate that attachment to Sri Krsna?" We cannot see Krsna. With our sense organs, we see all the living beings of this world and communicate with them. We exchange thoughts with them. We know that this body and all its relations will not live forever. We know this very well, but as we constantly exchange thoughts with these relations, we become attached to them. We see the deity in the temple and devotees refer to Him as Bhagavan, but He does not speak to us. If there is no exchange of thoughts, how can we cultivate attachment to the Lord? This is the problem. Rarely, from among crores (tens of millions) and crores of devotees, the Supreme Lord may have spoken to one or another. But He does not speak to us. Without such an exchange of thoughts, how can we feel love? Please explain this."
Then, Kapila Bhagavan said:

prasangam ajaram pasam
atmanah kavayo viduh
sa eva sadhusu krto
moksa-dvaram apavrtam
(Srimad Bhagavatam, 3.25.20)
Tri-guna means rajo-guna, sattva-guna and tamo-guna. By rajo-guna, living beings are created. By sattva-guna, those living beings are sustained and maintained. By tamo-guna, they are destroyed. Birth, existence and death are directed by these three gunas. This body is tri-guna. It was born and it will remain for some time in this world. Ultimately, it will perish. In concrete form, what is tri-guna? This body. If we always think only about the body--how to beautify the body, how to get the comforts of the body--then, we are attached to tri-guna. This is the cause of firm attachment. Where shall we go if we are always thinking about the body and, also, other bodies in relation to this body? "I have not seen the real self of my wife. I am seeing the tabernacle, the cage--both the subtle and the gross bodies-in which atma is residing. The body I see has been born, it will remain for some time and then it will die. I am associating with my own body. I am giving my attention to my own body, a non-eternal thing, and to other non-eternal things related to my own body, such as my wife, my children, etc. We are busy looking after our own body and other bodies. Kapila Bhagavan says that this is the cause of firm attachment. It is very difficult. We are in contact with the non-eternal things of this world. We are giving all our energy to non-eternal things. Thus, we become attached to them. It is only common sense.

Mother Devahuti then asked, "How can we communicate with the Supreme Lord? How can we cultivate that attachment to Sri Krsna? If we have attachment to the Supreme Lord, we will be rescued. But we cannot see Him. We see Him in His Deity form only. He does not speak with us."
Kapila Bhagavan replied, "You cannot see the Supreme Lord with these material eyes. 'Sa eva sadhusu krto moksa-dvaram apavrtam.' But, you can see the sadhus. They are moving about, just as you are. You can talk with them; you can exchange thoughts with them. You can behave this way with the sadhus. Then, you will be rescued. You cannot see God. This is true. You are presently giving your attention to your own body and other bodily relations, but you should give your energy for the service of a true devotee, the sadhu, the suddha bhakta. Prasangam: you should associate with them correctly, not superficially, externally. You can associate with the sadhu from here even if the sadhu is in India. India is so many thousands of miles away from the USA. But even from the USA, you can associate with the sadhu in India. The sadhu is thinking about the service of his object of worship: Radha-Govinda-Mahaprabhu. If you follow that thought, even from a great distance, then you are associating with the sadhu. But, remaining in physical proximity to the sadhu does not necessarily imply association. You have gone to the Math and you have slept in the same room, by the side of the sadhu, but you were thinking about something else. The sadhu was thinking about the worship of Sri Krsna but you were thinking about something else. Can you have association with the sadhu like this? We once saw a Babaji Maharaja who was lying on his bed. He had been going from temple to temple, always performing harinama. While he was lying on the bed, we noticed that there were many bugs in it. They were "associating" with Babaji Maharaja. What were they doing? They were sucking his blood! Direct contact! This is not association. There are other kinds of insects, such as lice, who like to remain in the best part of the body: the head. What do they do? By sitting on the head, the best part of the body of the sadhu, they suck his blood. Merely remaining in the vicinity of the sadhu is not sadhu-sanga. The sadhu is thinking about the Supreme Lord and how to serve Him, but I am thinking how to exploit the sadhu. This is not sadhu-sanga. You can have sanga from a distance if the purpose is correct. The end justifies the means. If the end is bad, everything will be bad.
Srila Rupa Gosvami has advised us how to associate with the sadhus:

dadati pratigrhnati
guhyam akhyati prcchati
bhunkte bhojayate caiva
sad-vidham priti-laksanam
(Sri Upadesamrta 4)

When you love someone, what do you do? You exhibit this kind of six-fold behavior. "Dadati pratigrhnati": you give something to your beloved and take something from your beloved. Give and take--you have love for one another. "guhyam akhyati prcchati": you speak your heart to him and you hear his heart. This communication between hearts is there. You have love. You feed that person with great love, and whatever that person gives, you take it. In this way, you can have sadhu-sanga. If you perform such behavior with an asadhu, an evil-minded person, then evil thoughts will come to you. If you behave this way with a suddha bhakta, a pure heart, by donating money, the wealth of this world that is like poison, that sadhu will take it and engage it in the service of the Supreme Lord and the sadhus. After that, he will give some prasada. Prasada may be anything, such as a cloth or something else that the devotee may take. Once, Sanatana Gosvami was requested to accept a new dress-cloth from Tapana Misra. Sanatana Gosvami refused the new cloth, saying, "No, I will not take this new cloth. But, as you are a brahmana, I must accept your gift. I must also accept because Caitanya Mahaprabhu has ordered me. But kindly give me a cloth that has been used by yourself. That prasada, I want. I do not want a new cloth." By using the used cloth, there will be no poison of visaya--the enjoying spirit will be removed. "Visaya" means " the object of enjoyment". It is the cause of our fall. When we give some visaya as a gift to the sadhu, he will engage it in the service of the Supreme Lord and the sadhus and return something to us. We should engage in this kind of exchange of behavior with the sadhu. We should open our hearts to the sadhu, and the sadhu will likewise open his heart. He will speak confidential things to us--bhajana rahasya: he will impart to us the esoteric aspects of worship. When I give my heart, then he will also give. I have to feed him with love, and he will give prasada. By such behavior, we can associate with the sadhus.
We should follow the teachings of the sadhu. We are not to place importance merely on external behavior. We must see the purpose for which sadhus are acting: for the service of Sri Krsna and the devotees. We should behave like the sadhu only when we understand the purpose of their behavior. We should follow, not imitate. What is the difference between following and imitation? This story may be given as an example.
There was once a peddler who maintained his family by selling caps. He would carry the caps on his head in a wicker basket. He would walk through the streets all day long selling these caps, taking his food along with him and eat along the way. He spent the day walking along the road, shouting, "Very nice caps for sale today! Price reduced! Take! Take! Take!" People would come and purchase his caps and he would thus maintain his family. But one day, even though he had spent the entire day shouting, he could not get any money. Not a single person had bought anything. Needless to say, he was very disappointed. Toward the afternoon, he became fatigued from so much walking. So, he sat under a big banyan tree. Being hungry, he ate the food that he had brought with him. After having eaten, he became drowsy and began to yawn. As he was so tired, he thought, "Let me lie down for some time." He spread a chadar on the grass beneath the tree and lay down. He placed the wicker basket, filled with caps, by the side of his head. He also kept a cap on his head and fell asleep.
After some time, some monkeys came from nearby and climbed up into the banyan tree. From the top of the tree, they could see that someone was sleeping underneath, who had a cap on top of his head, and next to him was a wicker basket-full of caps! "Oh!" they thought. "Let us get those caps!" They descended the tree and, silently, they approached the basket. Each monkey took one cap and put it on his head. In this way, all the caps were emptied from the basket. The monkeys became very satisfied with themselves by having put the caps on their heads. They climbed back up the tree and started to jump about from one branch to another with great delight, shrieking, "Kak! Koo! Kak! Koo!"
Hearing the sound of the monkeys, the peddler woke up. He was surprised to see that it was now evening. He looked at his wicker basket and saw that it was empty. "What? Not a single cap was sold but the caps are all gone! Who took them?" He looked about and saw the monkeys with the caps. "Now I have eaten all the food and have none left. If I have no food to give the monkeys, they will not return the caps." If you go to Vrndavana, there are many monkey-devotees there. Those monkeys will steal your spectacles. They will only return them if you give them some food. Now, this peddler realized that he had nothing to give the monkeys. "If they surround me, I shall be killed by them!" he thought.
He became enraged and shouted, "You have taken all that I have! Why have you not taken the cap on my own head? Here, you should take it!" He took his cap and threw it at them.
The monkeys saw this and, taking their own caps in their hands, threw them at the peddler below. Because the peddler had thrown his cap toward them, they also threw their caps toward him. Now their caps were on the ground and they were left with nothing. They do not know why one wears a cap. They simply imitate. Such imitation is not good. "How is the sadhu sleeping? He is sleeping like this, so I shall have to sleep like that. How is he sitting? I shall have to sit like that. How does the sadhu take his steps?" All this is imitation. You have to know the purpose. You will be able to follow by knowing the purpose.
Mother Devahuti again put a question to Lord Kapila, "You are now advising us to associate with sadhus. How can we recognize the sadhu? Who is the sadhu? What are the symptoms? What are the qualities of the sadhu? Please tell me."
Then, Kapila Bhagavan said, "By these qualities, you are to understand. One particular quality is the original quality: krsnaika-sarana. When that original quality is there, side by side, there are other concomitant qualities." First, Kapila Bhagavan described these accompanying, concomitant qualities. He describes the original quality later on. By seeing these qualities, you are to know that the person is a sadhu:

titiksavah karunikah
suhrdah sarva-dehinam
ajata-satravah santah
sadhavah sadhu-bhusanah
(Srimad Bhagavatam, 3.25.21)
We have been discussing the twenty-six qualities listed by Kaviraja Gosvami, but here, in a simplified form, Kapila Bhagavan is saying that these are the secondary or concomitant qualities. In Sanskrit, these are called "tatastha-laksana". The original quality is called "svarupa-laksana". You have to know the terminology of sanatana-dharma or you will not be able to understand. You have to be acquainted with the devotional terminology of Caitanya Mahaprabhu's teachings. "Tatastha-laksana" means concomitant qualities, side by side with the original quality. The accompanying qualities appear only when the original quality is there.
The first of these accompanying qualities is "titiksavah": tolerance, forgiveness. sadhus have no material desires, so sadhus can be tolerant. When we have desires and there is some obstacle to the fulfillment of those desires, then we become angry. "Kamat krodho 'bhijayate" (Bhagavad-gita, 2.62). We become unbalanced. The only desire of the sadhu is the satisfaction of Sri Krsna, nothing else. He has no desire for wealth, no desire for sexual satisfaction, no desire for name and fame. If we have the desire for wealth and someone puts some obstacle in our way, we become furious. But there is no cause for the sadhu to become furious and unbalanced. He does not want anything. Therefore, the sadhu is, by nature, tolerant and forgiving towards others.
Our Guru Maharaja used to give one very good illustration of this. The sadhu's behavior should be such:

ghrstam ghrstam punarapi punah candanam caru gandham
chinnam chinnam punarapi punah sadhucaiva iksu khandam
dagdham dagdham punarapi punah kancanam kanta rupam
na pranante prakrtir-vikrti jayate sajjananam
"Sat-jana": "Sat" means that which exists eternally. "Hari om tat sat." Sat is transcendental and that which is transcendental is sat. Mundane things are not sat. Sat is Hari, the Supreme Lord. The associates of Sri Hari, the devotees of Hari, are called "sat-jana". Under no circumstances do they become unbalanced. Take for example, sandalwood. If you rub sandalwood, if you graze it, does the sandalwood say, "Oh! You are giving me pain! I shall stop smelling sweetly. I shall give off a bad odor"? If you rub sandalwood, will it ever give off a bad smell? The bad smell is absent from its nature. You will always get a sweet smell from it. In this way, if the sadhu is oppressed, does he say, "Oh! He has done injury to me!" and retaliate? No! Instead, he is thinking, "I have done some wrong. This person is only instrumental. I am experiencing the fruits of my own actions. This person is not the cause." The sadhu tolerates the oppression. But we, in our ignorance, blame others for our own miseries.
Narada Gosvami gave advice to Dhruva. Dhruva's mother, Suniti, also advised him thusly. "If you have any kind of hostile mentality against your stepmother, then you will not succeed in your worship of the Lord. You will not receive His grace. Your stepmother is not the cause of your miseries--you are the cause. You have brought this upon yourself through some behavior in a previous birth. You are now reaping the fruits of that behavior:

mamangalam tata paresu mamstha
bhunkte jano yat para-duhkhadas tat
(Srimad Bhagavatam, 4.8.17)
"Do not blame others for your afflictions. You do not realize that you are receiving the same afflictions that you once inflicted upon others. God is omniscient. There cannot be any mistake in His judgment. You should tolerate this." Sadhus think like this. A sadhu does not retaliate against the oppression of others. Goodness always emanates from the sadhu. He cannot give any injury to any living being of this world. The tendency toward harm is completely absent from his character, so how can he do harm? He always does good toward others. In the holy biography of Prahlada Maharaja, you will find that he tolerated the oppression of Hiranyakasipu. Haridasa Thakura, during the life of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, also tolerated great oppression--titiksavah.
If sugarcane is cut to pieces, will it say, "Oh! You have given me affliction! I shall give up my sweet nature! I shall become bitter or sour!"? Even if you cut sugarcane to pieces, it will not give up its nature. It will always give a sweet taste. Its nature is to give sweetness. No other tendency is there. If you heat gold, that gold will not give up its radiant glow. "Oh! I have been burnt by fire! I shall give up my beautiful radiance and become black!" No, as much as you heat the gold, by that much, its glow will increase. Like this, if you oppress the sadhu, his glory will be manifested ever more and more. He is incapable of doing any harm to any living being of the world. By such behavior, you are to understand such a person to be a sadhu.
"Karunikah" is like "krpalu". The sadhu is always compassionate and kind to all the jivas of this world. He could very easily worship by sitting in one holy place of pilgrimage, but he chooses not to do this. Instead he moves from one place to another because he sees that all the living beings of this world do not know how to find their eternal welfare. They are in darkness. Seeing this, the sadhu cannot tolerate it. He moves from one place to another to make the jivas understand that they are on the wrong path. "You have forgotten your Supreme Lord, Who is All-Bliss, All-Existence, All-Knowledge! You are running after a phantasmagoria! You should worship the Lord!" Like that, the sadhu goes from door to door. This was Caitanya Mahaprabhu's order to Nityananda Prabhu and Haridasa Thakura. "Go beg from door to door. Do not beg for money, etc., but say, "Bolo `krsna,' bhajo krsna, koro krsna-siksa!" Nityananda Prabhu and Haridasa Thakura went to every door and said, "We have come with this message of Caitanya Mahaprabhu! Please utter the Name of Krsna! We do not want anything else. Worship Krsna! Study about Krsna: find out who you are and what your relationship is with Him. This is all we beg from you." Going from house to house, as per the direction of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, they did this. Today, through that preceptorial channel, as per the direction of Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, we are going to different places and performing sankirtana everywhere. So, this is the way in which the sadhus do good to others, for their eternal welfare. Those who are enslaved jivas are in bondage. They do not know what is in the interest of their own eternal welfare. What can they do? They can do things for material benefit, but not more than that.
"Suhrdah sarva-dehinam": Sadhus are the friends of all corporeal living beings. Are they only friends of the human beings and enemies of the beasts? No. They see that, in every being, the spiritual spark is present. We were also previously born as aquatic animals, trees, birds, etc. We should be compassionate toward them. We should not kill them. The sadhu has no impetus to do any injury to others because he sees Krsna and that all are connected to Krsna. If I love you, I cannot have the tendency to injure any part of you. To love you means that I love you along with all your parts. That is actual love. I say that I love you, but I am, at the same time, cutting your hand or cutting your leg. That is not love. If I have love for Krsna, then I shall have love for all living beings. Then actual love is there. Sadhus have this understanding. For this reason, they cannot have the temptation and mental inclination to do injury to others. It is absent in them.
You might say, "Yes, but they are eating vegetables. Vegetables also have life and they are killing them." Yes, it is true that if one eats vegetables for his own sake, then he is killing them. But what do sadhus do? They do everything for the satisfaction of the Supreme Lord. They know that all the living beings have to serve the Supreme Lord. These beings (vegetables) are in an undeveloped state of covered consciousness and they have no way to serve the Supreme Lord. But sadhus offer them for the service of Sri Krsna:

yajna-sistasinah santo
mucyante sarva-kilbisaih
bhunjate te tv agham papa
ye pacanty atma-karanat
(Bhagavad-gita, 3.13)
One of Bhagavan's Names is "Yajna" (sacrifice). He is the only Enjoyer and Master. He destroys all the sins of the devotee who partakes of the remnants of prasada. But, those who take vegetarian or non-vegetarian food are both incurring sin. Those who are taking vegetarian food are less sinful because they are killing less developed sentient beings. If one kills a highly developed sentient being, that is the greatest sin. But sadhus, after cooking, offer the preparations to the Lord, as per scriptural injunction. When those vegetables are being offered to the Lord, they are performing service. For that, those entities receive eternal benefit. There cannot be any sin in this activity when there is eternal benefit. They are doing good to those entities. All their sins will be destroyed. Sadhus do not merely take vegetables. They take that which can be offered to the Supreme Lord as prasada.
"Ajata-satravah": Sadhus do not see anyone as their enemy. "This is my friend and that is my foe." You will not find this sort of discrimination in the sadhu. All are connected with the Supreme Lord. There is no foe. My mind is the greatest foe. I have no other foe in this world. Prahlada also says in his prayer to the Supreme Lord, "When we become enveloped by the illusory energy of the Supreme Lord, we have the vision that this is my friend, that is my foe, this is mine and that belongs to someone else. We get this sort of distorted vision when we are enveloped by maya. I bow down to the Supreme Lord, by Whose energy, we in this world think that this man is a foe and that man is a friend, this country is a foe and that country is a friend."
"Santah": Sadhus are always calm and serene because they have no desire other than the service of Sri Krsna.
"Sadhavah sadhu-bhusanah": Sadhus give all respect to the scriptures. They practice everything as per scriptural injunction. They do not go against scripture. Another meaning of this phrase is that they are simple hearted, simple natured. They have no crookedness.
These are the secondary qualities of the sadhu--tatastha-laksana. But what is the original quality?

mayy ananyena bhavena
bhaktim kurvanti ye drdham
mat-krte tyakta-karmanas
(Srimad Bhagavatam, 3.25.22)
Kapila Bhagavan says, "I am the Complete Reality. One who is loyal to Me, to the Whole, is actually a sadhu." If you are loyal to the USA, you might harbor hostility toward other countries. If you are loyal to Europe, then you might exhibit hostility toward Asia. If you have loyalty for this world, then, in the interest of this world, you will go to exploit Mars and other planets. If you have loyalty for this brahmanda, constituted of fourteen planetary systems, you will exploit another brahmanda. If, however, you act only on behalf of Complete Reality, the Supreme Lord, whom can you exploit? Everything is in Him. That person whose allegiance is to Complete Reality is the actual sadhu. Deviation from that, when one's interest is for the individual parts, is the lowest position. The highest, most elevated position is given to those who are steadfastly aligned with the Complete Reality. "Mayy ananyena bhavena bhaktim kurvanti ye drdham": "One who has firm devotion for Me and sincerely worships Me, knows that, by worshipping Me, he serves all." Without worshipping Krsna, you cannot do good to any sentient beings of this world. The sadhu has this kind of knowledge. When we pour water on the roots of a tree, the whole tree is nourished. When we give food to the stomach, the whole body is nourished. The same holds true for "Acyuta Sri Hari": all are interconnected. Nobody can be detached. By serving Sri Hari, you serve all. This is actual service. This is the original quality of the sadhu. If this is absent, then he cannot be termed "sadhu". He may exhibit some sort of external quality, but that has no intrinsic value. When we have one-pointed devotion to Sri Krsna, all other qualities will come to us.

yasyasti bhaktir bhagavaty akincana
sarvair gunais tatra samasate surah
harav abhaktasya kuto mahad-guna
mano-rathenasati dhavato bahih
(Srimad Bhagavatam 5.18.12)
All other qualities are present in one who has one-pointed devotion to Supreme Lord Sri Krsna. A person who is averse to Sri Krsna, who has no devotion, has no qualities. He is running after worldly things so how can he have any qualities? From where can he get these qualities? Qualities come from God. If you have one-pointed devotion to Sri Krsna, all the qualities will come to you. We think that we have become civilized in this world. How is this civilized? The so-called civilization of this world is a mere hypocrisy. If one acts in a hypocritical manner, exhibiting grand external behavior, then, in the Kali-yuga, that is considered to be civilized. What is this civilization of Kali-yuga? We have something inside. Our behavior shows one thing but in the heart dwells something else. Outwardly, we shake a person's hand, but inwardly we want to kill that person. You will now find this sort of "civilization" in Kali-yuga. You will get actual civilization only from a suddha bhakta--a Vaisnava--who is one in his words and heart. Those who are "avaisnava" (not Vaisnava) behave hypocritically, with deceitfulness, displaying mere etiquette. They have no sincerity.
Take, for example, a small boy. He is very beautiful. As he plays here and there, he smears his body with dust and mud. But still, that boy is giving happiness to his parents. If he is decorated with beautiful clothes, then he becomes even more beautiful to them. But if the life leaves that body, and that dead body is decorated with all the most beautiful garments and ornaments, will that dead body give any happiness to the parents or any other person? All will be afraid at the sight of the dead body. When we do not have one-pointed devotion to Sri Krsna, there is no life in our existence. It is like a lifeless, dead body. By decorating your dead body, you cannot get satisfaction for yourself and you cannot give satisfaction to others. You are lifeless.
When you have one-pointed devotion to Sri Krsna, then actual qualities with intrinsic value will appear. Now, without devotion to the Supreme Lord, whatever qualities you may exhibit have no actual intrinsic value. It is an outward show only. It is not coming from within.
"Mat-krte tyakta-karmanas": In India, you will find that all human beings are not of the same status. There are differences. In one person, you will find sattva-guna predominating, in another rajo-guna predominating and in another, tamo-guna. So, they are advised to practice varnasrama-dharma, whereby they are encouraged to act according to their own ability and level of competence within the four varnas (brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudra) and four asramas (brahmacari, grhastha, vanaprastha and sannyasi). If they relinquish this practice, they will be committing a sin. They will be violating the Vedic order. But, if they relinquish this for the service of Sri Krsna, it will be correct.
You will find, in the Gita, Krsna first told Arjuna, "Perform your work according to your own competency. Do not attempt to do the work of others who are of a different nature." But ultimately, He says, "Sarva-dharman parityajya, mam ekam saranam vraja" (18.66). "Give up all the relative duties I have spoken about earlier and take absolute shelter of Me. You are my own person. You are related to Me. You are part of My own potency. I have hitherto advised you to act according to your own capacity, but you will obtain your actual, eternal welfare when you take absolute shelter of Me." When we take absolute shelter of the Supreme Lord, we will not be committing sin by giving up those relative duties. But, take careful note of the words, "mat-krte": for Me. "Performing household duties or brahmacari duties has become too difficult, so I have given them up." Thinking like this, you are committing sin. You are violating the Vedic injunctions. But if you take shelter of Supreme Lord Sri Krsna, then automatically you are performing service for all.
Generally, we refer to those who have given up their household life as sadhus. "I am married. I have a wife and children. I have no funds to maintain them. So, I have given up household life. I am moving along the road, begging. I have become a sadhu." He is not a sadhu. He is committing a sin. But if a person lives within household life, serving Krsna, then all the family members are benefited. "Mat-krte tyakta-karmanas tyakta-svajana-bandhavah": "for Me."

What are the original qualities of the sadhu? One is one-pointed devotion to the Supreme Lord and another is that you have to give up this varnasrama-dharma and bodily relations for the service of Sri Krsna. If you do this, then you are doing good to all. That is a sadhu. Another of the original qualities of the sadhu is that the sadhu only likes to hear and speak about Krsna:

mad-asrayah katha mrstah
srnvanti kathayanti ca
tapanti vividhas tapa
naitan mad-gata-cetasah
(Srimad Bhagavatam, 3.25.23)
Why does the sadhu wish only to hear and speak about Krsna? When the sadhu does not have the company of his beloved Supreme Lord, how can he live? How can he survive? He survives by singing the glories of the Supreme Lord, always hearing about and remembering Him. That is the life and soul of the sadhu. No sadhu can survive without hearing and speaking about Krsna. It is like water to a fish. A fish cannot remain without water. Like that, without hearing about Krsna, without speaking about Krsna, without remembering Krsna, a sadhu cannot survive. That is his very life. That quality must be present in him. Having separation grief, he cannot remain without speaking about Krsna. That quality you must clearly be able to see: whether or not he has the taste to hear and speak about Krsna's Name, Form, Attributes, etc.
The sadhu cannot speak for money or some other ulterior motive. Then it is not hari-katha, as it is not for Krsna:
"You have given up everything. You have taken shelter of the Supreme Lord, but you have no belief! The Supreme Lord is maintaining and sustaining the whole universe--even all the beings who are averse to Him. If anybody takes shelter of Him, will he not be protected? Do you not have such belief? You have to take money for giving Him service? Hearing is devotional service. Speaking for the satisfaction of Sri Krsna is also devotion."
"But, if we take no money, then how shall we live?"
"Then let us die! If no one gives us food for our service and we die, then let us die! What is the use of having this sort of belief? God is maintaining the whole universe. He will not maintain me? Why should I ask for this?"
If a person goes to another's house and starts working for him, without demanding anything, how long will the master of the house remain silent? Two or three days go by without feeding him. The master thinks, "He is working for me. How can I eat without giving him something?" That person might be a very bad person, but the master does not consider this. If anybody acts on behalf of the Supreme Lord, will He not protect him? The Supreme Lord is All-Powerful. He maintains infinite brahmandas but does not give these worldly things to the devotees? So why should you accept money for speaking about the Supreme Lord. If you hear that sort of speech, then that person is speaking about the end, and that end is money.

For this reason, we should always remember Nrsimhadeva. Nrsimhadeva kills Hiranyakasipu. Who is Hiranyakasipu? "Hiranya" means wealth and "kasipu" means bed--sexual desire. So "Hiranyakasipu" means "those who have desire for wealth and sex, and also for name and fame". Such persons cannot get Krsna. So, Hiranyakasipu is within us. Externally, we may see a demon, but that demon is also residing within ourselves. That demon should be killed! Then you can go to Krsna. There is also one-pointed, causeless, eternal devotion residing within our real selves. That is called "Prahlada". There is Prahlada, Nrsimha Bhagavan and bhakti. Nrsimha Bhagavan will remove all ulterior motives from our hearts. He will kill Hiranyakasipu and enhance Prahlada. So we should remember Lord Nrsimhadeva:

ito nrsimhah parato nrsimha
yato yato yami tato nrsimha
bahir nrsimha hrdaye nrsimha
nrisimham adim saranam prapadye

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Guru Position Paper

Dear devotees,

Please accept our dandavat pranams. All glories to Sri Guru and Gauranga.

Since the departure of our beloved Gurudeva, Nitya-lila pravista Om Sri Srimad Bhaktivedanta Narayana Gosvami Maharaja, the Sannyasa Council in consultation with the members of the Bhakti Trust International, senior math commanders and eminent preachers, has begun the process of developing and codifying the principles and aims of our sanga, known as the International Pure Bhakti Yoga Society. Sri Guru is always present in his instructions and within the hearts of sincere disciples. We pray fervently that Srila Gurudeva guide us in our humble attempts to fulfill his mano bhista. Our discussions thus far have resulted in two papers that are being presented for your consideration.

Our Society, as envisioned by Srila Gurudeva, has many responsibilities and yet has a distinctive inclination towards encouraging individual initiative and decision making on the local level. The institution or society has as its primary responsibility, the preservation and teaching of the eternal spiritual principles conveyed by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu through our guru-parampara . The form that our society takes and any guidelines and bylaws that we may adopt, are meant to follow and uphold those principles.

Thus you will see in the two papers that are presented, that there is little in the way of rules and regulations. The topic is mostly guru-tattva and how we are responding to the complexities of that issue now that there are multiple devotees taking on that role within the same society. The emphasis is to clarify our spiritual relationships and our mutual goals. The processes by which we achieve these may be adjusted according to time, place and circumstance, as long as the original principles remain fixed as our guiding beacon.

The first paper on guru-tattva was written to be presented at the Vraja-mandala Parikrama of 2011. There were some issues that had not yet been discussed by the international body of sannyasis and senior devotees. We waited for those meetings to be concluded so that a summary of those discussions could be given at the same time. These meetings addressed the practical application of the guru-tattva paper based on the experiences gained and input received from members of the world-wide sanga over the last 9 months. The second paper is a summary of the meetings held in Govardhana during the parikrama in November, 2011.

These papers will certainly stimulate discussion and responses from devotees around the world. That is a good thing. Please keep the discussions philosophical and respectful. The discussions may center around guru-tattva or they may explore other areas of personal and sanga development. This is a challenging and exciting time. Let your voices be heard.

Aspiring for the service of Hari, Guru and Vaisnavas,

Swami BV Vaikhanas